Sunday, April 29, 2012

The Three Period Lesson

Without doubt, one of Dr. Montessori's most important innovations was the inclusion of a technique called the Three Period Lesson. Adopted from the work of Eduoard Seguin, a French doctor and educator, the three period lesson is used by Montessori teachers on a daily basis and is an indispensable way to teach new language and the concepts intrinsic to that language.  Used properly, the three period lesson gives children information in an orderly and straightforward way which allows them to glean small amounts of knowledge over a long period of time.  This lets children reflect on the new knowledge and gives them time to apply it to concepts they've already mastered.  As they gain more and more bits of knowledge, they begin to draw conclusions about the world around them based on a solid, fact-based stockpile of information.

So how does it work?  Well, as the name implies, there are three parts to the lesson.  The first period is the naming lesson in which the child is told the names of objects (one by one, in isolation).  The second period is the recognition stage in which the child is asked to remember a specific object. Finally, the third period is when the child recalls the name of a specific object.

That's a very brief description of the three period lesson.  I haven't gone into a long explanation about how to present the lesson because there are lots of examples all over the internet. (Here's a very good description if you want to learn more.)   However, the best way to see a three period lesson is to ask your child's teacher - not the assistant - to give you one.   If she doesn't know how to do a three period lesson......I would question the authenticity of her Montessori training.

The importance of the Three period lesson can't be underestimated.  This tool can be used anywhere.  In the classroom we use it to introduce letter sounds, number values and symbols, continent names, plants and animals, but it is not limited just to the classroom.  It can also be used in the playground, in the kitchen, at music lessons, even at the super market.  It can even be used to introduce object names in a second language.  There is no limit to how this lesson can be used because, under the right circumstances, there is no limit to the amount of information a child between the ages of 3 and 6 is capable of absorbing. 

Nor does the three period lesson stop when  a child enters a Montessori elementary classroom.  Like so many other concepts, the lesson becomes more abstract as the older child gradually moves away from the concrete.  For example, a botany lesson might begin with the examination of a flower and the naming of its various parts (naming).  The second period (recognition) happens when a child works with the three part cards of the flower. ( Each card has a picture and corresponding label.  Working with this material, the child gradually memorizes the name for each part.)  Finally , in the third period, the child challenges himself by using the definition cards to identify the correct picture and label.  

The real beauty of the three period lesson is that it allows Montessori teachers to meet each child exactly where they are.  In other words, the technique allows the children as much time as they need to learn each new concept - some children will absorb a concept quickly and only need the lesson once or twice while other children may want to be given the lesson many times until they are confident enough to move on.


Sunday, April 15, 2012

Pets in the Classroom

     The prepared environment of many Montessori classrooms includes an animal of one sort or another.  As I've written on the other blog, the inclusion of live animals in a child’s daily life greatly enhances their abilities to learn responsibility, empathy and compassion for other living things, respect for life, and the natural development of living things.  In addition to being a loving companion, pets provide comfort and solace in times of stress. This holds true for the classroom as well as in a child's home.

     Having living examples of the five classes of animals (reptiles, amphibians, birds, mammals, insects)also helps to develop the understanding a student gleans when working with any of the zoology materials

     During my years as a Montessori teacher, I have had the opportunity to work with snakes, turtles, frogs and toads, geckos, fish, tarantulas (not my favourite), lizards, stick bugs, guinea pigs, hamsters, and birds.  Despite my own phobias (as in that HUGE spider) I loved watching the children watching the animals.  Even more, I loved listening to their comments.

"Mrs. Dyer!  I think a cricket got away!"

"Do fish like jam sandwiches?"

"No way Rocky can swallow that WHOLE mouse!"  (Rocky was the snake and the mice were frozen, thank goodness.  Thawing them was one of the more bizarre tasks I've encountered in my career as a Montessorian.)

     When talking to friends about this topic, I found there were three different schools of thought.  The first was that having animals in the classroom was a great idea, the second was a more militant feeling that animals don't belong in cages and therefore shouldn't be in classrooms, and the third was that because live animals bring so many positive things into a classroom there is a place for them BUT their habitats have to be as close to real life as possible.  In the words of a Biologist friend (Sabrina), "It is usually a matter of enough space and the art of 'decoration'.  Frogs  (her specialty) or amphibians in general have a wide range of behaviour... some don't move around much and some are very active.  When you can give them what they need, its not a problem to keep them as pets. That means they need more than just a warmed cage with some soil in it.  Some people, or better, most people don't think much about it.  For example, most small animals and many fish need places to hide, just like in their natural habitat. Unfortunately, this may mean that the children don't see them very often."

     The picture below is Sabrina's frog tank. It is an excellent example of a tank being set up to mirror an animal's natural habitat.  Hiding in amongst all those leaves are tiny little frogs.  They may be hard to spot, but children will quickly learn that in order to spot one, they will have to hold very still and be very patient.  Good skills to take out on nature walks.

     Here, Sabrina hold one of her frogs on the end of her fingers.  (She was careful to remind me that holding a frog for too long can hurt them because they absorb substances through their skin and the heat from our hands can cause frogs to overheat.)

     Recently, I spent some time in our Campbell River school and was fascinated to watch how the teacher's dog had become part of the classroom.  The dog (Kira) spends her "down time" in the teacher's office but she doesn't stay there for long.  About three or four times a morning, a child will take the short leash (made by the teacher), open the door and call Kira.

     Once on the leash,  Kira is walked carefully across the classroom to the mat by the front door.  She is asked to sit ( and almost always obeys) then the child goes to the Practical Life shelves to get a box containing the grooming tools.

     It is plain to me that Kira loves this activity as much as the children do.  What I found most interesting, however, was that none of the other children were really distracted by the dog while she was in the classroom.  They had accepted her presence the same way they would accept any other classmate - a novelty at first but soon just another classroom member.  

      It is important to note that Kira was chosen because of her mild temperament and she was introduced slowly to the classroom.  In addition, we sent a notice home to the parents (and the Licensing Authority) about the dog being in the classroom and the teacher was careful to make sure there were no children allergic to dogs.  As you can see from the pictures below, Kira has been accepted by the children in and out of the classroom.


     Having pets in the classroom is never a replacement for taking the children out into nature.  However, carefully prepared, indoor natural environments can enrich a child's understanding of the world around them.

Friday, April 6, 2012

Montessori Seeds blog

There's a new blog in the neighbourhood which deserves a look.  Montessori Seeds written by Matthew Simberg is "a blog about elementary age children, philosophies, advice, networking and sharing from a Montessori perspective and others alike."